There are numerous ways to greet someone in Cumbraek. The simplest option is to say hoy, used just like the English hi, or halo hello. More formal greetings include:

  • Didh da  Hello, Good day (not as formal as in English)
  • Bore da  Good morning
  • Oucher da  Good evening

Whenever you address someone directly, either just with their name or following a greeting like those above, the particle a precedes the name and causes lenition:

  • Hoy a Damm  Hi Tom
  • Bore da a Veyster MacDonald  Good morning, Mr MacDonald
  • A Gadrin!  Catherine!

This particle is often dropped in speech, but the mutation always remains:  Didh da Wallok  Good day Gwallog.

Being Polite

Some basic, polite conversational elements include:

  • Hoadh cuvarvot genich  Nice to meet you
  • Pe dhel’ edh ich?  How are you?
  • Braw, joluch, a hwiwi?  Fine thanks, and you?
  • Peth iw ach anuw?  What is your name?
  • Meystres Hewitt iw mun anuw  My name is Mrs Hewitt

The pronoun hwi you is used when talking to more than one person and as a rather formal way of addressing a stranger or social superior (e.g. teacher, employer, judge etc.). In most informal situations the pronoun ti is perfectly acceptable. Here are the above phrases with ti:

  • Hoadh cuvarvot genit  Nice to meet you
  • Pe dhel’ edh oot?  How are you?
  • Braw joluch, a thidi?  Fine thanks, and you?
  • Peth iw de anuw?  What is your name?
  • Tamm oov  I’m Tom


Saying goodbye is easy.

  • Is ret dum munet  I have to go
  • Duw genich  Goodbye (fml)
  • Duw genit  Goodbye (inf)
  • Ech gwelav  See you (fml)
  • Eth welav  See you (inf)
    • … voch  … soon
    • … avory  … tomorrow
    • … war Dhiw Loun  … on Monday
    • … seythoun nessav  … next week
  • Nos dha  Good night