I Have…

Cumbraek does not have a simple verb meaning to have. Instead, the idea of possession is expressed in phrases like Ema merch dum I have a daughter (literally There is a daughter to me) or Ema carr gant Yagov James has a car (literally There is a car with James).

The choice between du to and gant with depends on whether or not the possessed object is considered to be inseparable from the possessor. Things which are inseparable from a person, such as family members, characteristics and body parts, are described with du to whilst objects which can be bought or sold, lost or found are described with gant with. Here are some examples:

Ema blew dou dudho  He has black hair
Ema dow vap du Janan  Jane has two sons
Ema livir genit  You have a book
Ema gunnow gant er vedhin  The army have guns

In each case the structure is exactly the same:  ema + possessed object + du/gant + possessor. As shown above, personal forms of prepositions are used when the possessor is a pronoun.

The same kind of structure can be used in questions, negatives and different tenses, e.g:

Ema broadur dut  You have a brother
Ais broadur dut?  Do you have a brother?
Ned ais broadur dut  You do not have a brother
Edh aidh duwrot genit  You had a bike
E bidh duwrot genit  You will have a bike

We also use this structure with war on when talking about illnesses and negative feelings or emotions, such as stress, fear, shame, pain or hunger, e.g. Edh aidh annwit warny  She had a coldAis own warnach?  Are you afraid?Ema newin war Vorgant  Morgant is hungry.

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