Subject Pronouns

The subject pronouns are:

mi  I ni  we
ti  you hwi  you
ev  he oo  they
hi  she


  • Cumbraek has two forms of you:  ti is used when referring to one person, particularly when you know them; hwi is used for referring to more than one person but is also used as a formal singular, when addressing a stranger or someone in power.
  • There is no word for it. Instead the word ev is used when referring to masculine nouns and hi when referring to feminine nouns.

Subject pronouns may be used before a verb as in English, e.g. mi gwelav I seeev can he sings.

They may also be joined to the end of a verb for emphasis. In this case, mi and ti become vi and di, e.g. gwelav-vi I seedonsyest-di you danced.

Object Pronouns

Object pronouns are quite unlike those used in English because 1) they are attached to the end of verbal particles; 2) they come before the verb. The object pronouns are:

-m  me -nh  us
-thl  you -ch  you
-yh  him, it -sh  them
-sh  her, it

There is no distinction between -s her and -s them. In most cases the context will show which is meant.


  • Eth garav  I love you
  • Nes gwelas Yowann John did not see her
  • Ruch devennsam  We have invited you

Possessive Adjectives

mun, mun  my anh  our
del  your ach  your
il  his ownh  their
ish  her

The possessive adjectives are used much as in English, preceding the noun they possess, e.g. mu ti my housei h’anuw her namean ci our dog.

Unlike in English, the possessive adjectives can also be used to express the object of a verb noun, e.g. de welet  seeing youow h’ounhei  uniting themmu ladh  killing me.

Demonstrative Pronouns

Cumbraek has three demonstrative pronouns: hunn this, used as in English, hunnedh that used to refer to objects out of sight or in the mind, and hunnunt that referring to objects in view. Each of these has a masculine, feminine and plural form which agrees with the noun referred to.

Masc. Fem. Plural
this   hunn honn hinn
that (out of sight, abstract) hunnedh honnedh hinnedh
that (in sight) hunnunt honnunt hinnunt

These demonstratives can also be used as adjectives following a definite noun (i.e. one preceded by the article er the). Objects in sight but distance take hunt, which does not alter for gender or number. E.g. er ci hunn this doger tei hunt those houseser verch honnedh that girl.

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