Prepositions

Prepositions – words like to, from, in, about – are an important part of Cumbraek grammar and behave quite differently to their equivalents in English. Firstly, instead of saying to him or about me, Cumbraek has special personal forms of prepositions where the two words are combined, e.g. dudho to him, amdanav about me. Secondly, prepositions are used in a wide variety of phrases where we often have a simple verb in English, the most common example of which is phrases like Ema ci dum I have a dog, literally There is a dog to me.

There are two main types of preposition: 1) simple prepositions, which are a single word like du, amm, in; and 2) compound prepositions which are formed with a simple preposition and a nominal element, e.g. im’misk, war’lorr.

Simple Prepositions

Here are the personal forms for the six prepositions amm, o, war, in, gant and du:

amm about of, from war on in in gant with du to
me  amdanav anav warnav innov geniv dum
you (sg)  amdanat anat warnat innot genit dut
him  amdano ano warno indho gantho dudho
her  amdany any warny indhy genthy dudhy
us  amdanam anam warnam innonn geninn dun
you (pl)  amdanach anach warnach innoch genich duch
them  amdandhou andhou warndhou indhou ganthou dudhou

Note that the endings follow certain patterns, e.g. -av, -ov, -iv, and all personal prepositions follow one of these patterns, e.g. ragov before mewurthiv against me. Note also that the stem of the personal preposition is often different to the stand-alone form, e.g. amm becomes amdan-gant becomes gan-.  Du to is irregular.

Some simple prepositisons such as cint beforeach beside and tra beyond do not take personal endings. To say before me or beside you, the personal forms of du to are used, e.g. cint dum before meach duch after you. 

Compound Prepositions

Compound prepositions are easily spotted as the two elements are separated with an apostrophe, e.g. im’misk amongstwar’lorr after, behind. The only exception to this is erbinn against (a compound of ar + penn).

To make compound prepositions personal, the two elements are separated and a possessive adjective fills the gap, e.g. in an misk amongst uswar de lorr after you. Here are some example paradigms:

erbinn
against
im’mlen 
in front of
tra’chevin 
behind
war’benn 
on top of
me  ar vu penn im mu mlen tra’m cevin war vu penn
you (sg)  ar de benn in de vlen tra’th gevin war de benn
him  ar i benn in i vlen tra’y gevin war i benn
her  ar i fenn in i blen tra’y chevin war i fenn
us  ar an penn in an blen tra an cevin war an penn
you (pl)  ar ach penn in ach blen tra ach cevin war ach penn
them  ar ow penn in ow mlen tra ow cevin war ow penn

Note that de your does not undergo lenition or nasalisation.