Prepositions – words like to, from, in, about – are an important part of Cumbraek grammar and behave quite differently to their equivalents in English. Firstly, instead of saying to him or about me, Cumbraek has special personal forms of prepositions where the two words are combined, e.g. dudho to him, amdanav about me. Secondly, prepositions are used in a wide variety of phrases where we often have a simple verb in English, the most common example of which is phrases like Ema ci dum I have a dog, literally There is a dog to me.
There are two main types of preposition: 1) simple prepositions, which are a single word like du, amm, in; and 2) compound prepositions which are formed with a simple preposition and a nominal element, e.g. im’misk, war’lorr.
Here are the personal forms for the six prepositions amm, o, war, in, gant and du:
|amm about||o of, from||war on||in in||gant with||du to|
Note that the endings follow certain patterns, e.g. -av, -ov, -iv, and all personal prepositions follow one of these patterns, e.g. ragov before me, wurthiv against me. Note also that the stem of the personal preposition is often different to the stand-alone form, e.g. amm becomes amdan-, gant becomes gan-. Du to is irregular.
Some simple prepositisons such as cint before, ach beside and tra beyond do not take personal endings. To say before me or beside you, the personal forms of du to are used, e.g. cint dum before me, ach duch beside you.
Compound prepositions are easily spotted as the two elements are separated with an apostrophe, e.g. im’misk amongst, war’lorr after, behind. The only exception to this is erbinn against (a compound of ar + penn).
To make compound prepositions personal, the two elements are separated and a possessive adjective fills the gap, e.g. in an misk amongst us, war de lorr after you. Here are some example paradigms:
in front of
on top of
|me||ar vu penn||im mu mlen||tra’m cevin||war vu penn|
|you (sg)||ar de benn||in de vlen||tra’th gevin||war de benn|
|him||ar i benn||in i vlen||tra’y gevin||war i benn|
|her||ar i fenn||in i blen||tra’y chevin||war i fenn|
|us||ar an penn||in an blen||tra an cevin||war an penn|
|you (pl)||ar ach penn||in ach blen||tra ach cevin||war ach penn|
|them||ar ow penn||in ow mlen||tra ow cevin||war ow penn|
Note that de your does not undergo lenition or nasalisation.