Peoples and Languages
In its widest sense Goodhel (pl. Goodhelyon) means Gael and can refer to any of the Gaelic-speaking peoples, but is usually understood to mean Irishman. A more specific term would be Iwerdhonur Irishman (pl. Iwerdhonus).
In addition to these we have Lepontek Lepontic, a Celtic language spoken in ancient Italy, and Gallegya Galicia, a region in north west Spain with Celtic connections.
There are many Celtic deities and spirits attested throughout the Roman world, and a few continued to be known into the Cumbraek period.
- Brient (Brigantia) was the tribal goddess of the Brigantes tribe, who controlled much of northern England at the time of the Roman invasion. She was probably a goddess of the land and fertility. Her name continued as the name of a saint (Irish Brighid).
- Luw (Lugus) was a god of light and crafts, who rose to be one of the most important Gods in Britain. His name is remembered in Cayr Luwel Carlisle (‘the fort of Luguwaljos’ from a personal name meaning ‘the power of Lugus’) and Lowdhinyon Lothian (‘territory of the fort of Lugus’).
- Modron (Matrona) and Mabon (Maponos) were the divine mother and child. The latter, a god of youth, had a cult centre in Cumbry and is connected with Luch Mabon Lochmaben (‘the Lake of Maponos’) and Mayn Mabon Clochmabenstane (‘the stone of Maponos’). Later legend connected Modron with Ourven and made her the mother of Ewen and Morvoudh.
- Mo or Mohunt (Mogons) may originally have been one of the primary Gods of Britain, as his name means ‘great one’ and he is associated with a Romano-Celtic god Veteris, whose name means ‘old’. He was a popular deity in Brigantian territory during the Roman period.
- Noudh (Nodens) was probably a god of hunting or fishing and is associated with water. A Roman inscription to him was found at Cockersand in Lancashire. His name continued to be used by rulers of the Old North for centuries.
Other Celtic Words
Some other useful words connected with Celtic peoples and cultures include:
- bardh bard
- derwidh druid
- ayruw, torch torque
- Estedhvot Eisteddfod (calqued from Welsh)
- Gorsedh Gorsedd (calqued from Welsh)
- brithok, plat tartan
- cordh, looth clan, tribe